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Biomarkers of Aging

Explain 84% of the variance in the aging process


Working with a Stanford University biomathematician, we analyzed correlations among various biomarkers to develop the algorithms used in the calculation of the physiological ages of six important organ systems. Then we developed the PhysioAge® Composite, a weighted composite index of these six underlying ages. The PhysioAge® Composite is able to explain 84% of the variance of the aging process (r-squared = 0.84). To our knowledge, no other system approaches this benchmark in measuring the physiological age of important organ systems. To be generally considered a biomarker of aging, a biomarker must have an r2 greater than 0.1 and a p-value less than 0.05. By contrast, the six biomarkers we selected as components of the PhysioAge® Composite each have r2 values between 0.25 and 0.6. A higher r2 conveys greater predictive power.

CardioAge - Arterial Stiffness Testing with SphygmoCor® by Atcor Medical

  • Determines the suppleness of your arteries using pulse wave analysis

  • Assesses your risk of cardiovascular disease by measuring augmentation pressure


PulmoAge - Pulmonary Function Testing with Midmark® Spirometer

  • Measures forced expiratory volume (FEV1/FCV), which is highly correlated with age

  • Predicts all-cause mortality, not just mortality from pulmonary disease


NeuroAge - Cognitive Assessment Testing with CNS Vital Signs®

  • Measures the most highly age-sensitive aspects of cognitive function using a computerized battery of tests

  • Functions as an effective screen for mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease


CutoAge - Skin Elasticity Testing with C+K Cutometer®

  • Assesses the elasticity of the skin with the same instrument used in numerous clinical trials of OTC and pharmaceutical skin care products

  • Determines the propensity to develop wrinkles by measuring elasticity, firmness, and resistance to stress

ImmunoAge - Immune Function Testing by UCLA School of Medicine (blood)

  • Measures the health of the immune system using proprietary algorithms of standard immune subsets

  • Utilizes cutting-edge molecular markers for senescent and naïve T-cells

TelomerAge – Telomere Length Measurement by Repeat Diagnostics® (blood)

  • Measures the length of the telomeres, the caps at the ends of the chromosomes that act as a molecular clock by shortening with every cell division

  • Telomere shortening is highly correlated in numerous studies with aging and many disease states


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