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PhysioAge Systems Selected References


*** Read first, excellent introduction, **Important studies with biomarker equipment,    *Excellent review or original study

1.    Hickson SS, Butlin M, Mir FA, et al. The accuracy of central SBP determined from the second systolic peak of the peripheral pressure waveform. J Hypertens 2009;27:1784-8

2.    Roman MJ, Devereux RB, Kizer JR, et al. Central pressure more strongly relates to vascular disease and outcome than does brachial pressure: the Strong Heart Study. Hypertension 2007;50:197-203.

3.    ***O'Rourke MF, Hashimoto J. Mechanical factors in arterial aging: a clinical perspective. J Am Coll Cardiol 2007;50:1-13.

4.    O'Rourke MF. Arterial aging: pathophysiological principles. Vasc Med 2007;12:329-41.

5.    Williams B, Lacy PS, Thom SM, et al. Differential impact of blood pressure-lowering drugs on central aortic pressure and clinical outcomes: principal results of the Conduit Artery Function Evaluation (CAFE) study. Circulation 2006;113:1213-25.

6.    Najjar SS, Scuteri A, Lakatta EG. Arterial aging: is it an immutable cardiovascular risk factor? Hypertension 2005;46:454-62.

7.    **McEniery CM, Yasmin, Hall IR, Qasem A, Wilkinson IB, Cockcroft JR. Normal vascular aging: differential effects on wave reflection and aortic pulse wave velocity: the Anglo-Cardiff Collaborative Trial (ACCT). J Am Coll Cardiol 2005;46:1753-60.

8.    *Lakatta EG, Levy D. Arterial and Cardiac Aging: Major Shareholders in Cardiovascular Disease Enterprises: Part II: The Aging Heart in Health: Links to Heart Disease. Circulation 2003;107:346-54.

9.    *Lakatta EG, Levy D. Arterial and Cardiac Aging: Major Shareholders in Cardiovascular Disease Enterprises: Part I: Aging Arteries: A "Set Up" for Vascular Disease. Circulation 2003;107:139-46.

10.    *Lakatta EG. Arterial and Cardiac Aging: Major Shareholders in Cardiovascular Disease Enterprises: Part III: Cellular and Molecular Clues to Heart and Arterial Aging. Circulation 2003;107:490-7.

11.    Smith JC, Evans LM, Wilkinson I, et al. Effects of GH replacement on endothelial function and large-artery stiffness in GH-deficient adults: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2002;56:493-501.

12.    Safar ME, Blacher J, Pannier B, et al. Central pulse pressure and mortality in end-stage renal disease. Hypertension 2002;39:735-8.


1.    Chan ED, Welsh CH. Geriatric respiratory medicine. Chest 1998;114:1704-33.

2.    **Deane K, Stevermer JJ, Hickner J. Help smokers quit: tell them their "lung age". J Fam Pract 2008;57:584-6.

3.    Hankinson JOHN    L, Odencrantz JOHN    R, Fedan KATHLEEN    B. Spirometric Reference Values from a Sample of the General U.S. Population. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1999;159:179-87.

4.    *Ito K, Barnes PJ. COPD as a disease of accelerated lung aging. Chest 2009;135:173-80.

5.    Petty TL. John Hutchinson's mysterious machine revisited. Chest 2002;121:219S-23S.

6.    *Schunemann HJ, Dorn J, Grant BJB, Winkelstein W, Jr., Trevisan M. Pulmonary Function Is a Long-term Predictor of Mortality in the General Population : 29-Year Follow-up of the Buffalo Health Study. Chest 2000;118:656-64.

7.    Schunemann HJ, Grant BJB, Freudenheim JL, et al. The Relation of Serum Levels of Antioxidant Vitamins C and E, Retinol and Carotenoids with Pulmonary Function in the General Population. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2001;163:1246-55.

8.    *Sorlie PD, Kannel WB, O'Connor G. Mortality associated with respiratory function and symptoms in advanced age. The Framingham Study. Am Rev Respir Dis 1989;140:379-84.

9.    ***Young RP, Hopkins R, Eaton TE. Forced expiratory volume in one second: not just a lung function test but a marker of premature death from all causes. Eur Respir J 2007;30:616-22.

10.    Zureik M, Benetos A, Neukirch C, et al. Reduced pulmonary function is associated with central arterial stiffness in men. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2001;164:2181-5.


1.    *Brincat MP. Hormone replacement therapy and the skin: beneficial effects: the case in favor of it. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 2000;79:244-9.

2.    Brincat MP, Baron YM, Galea R. Estrogens and the skin. Climacteric 2005;8:110-23.

3.    Dobrev H. Application of Cutometer area parameters for the study of human skin fatigue. Skin Res Technol 2005;11:120-2.

4.    **Fisher GJ, Kang S, Varani J, et al. Mechanisms of Photoaging and Chronological Skin Aging. Arch Dermatol 2002;138:1462-70.

5.    ***Ohshima H, Kinoshita S, Oyobikawa M, et al. Use of Cutometer area parameters in evaluating age-related changes in the skin elasticity of the cheek. Skin Res Technol 2012.

6.    Pierard GE, Henry F, Castelli D, Ries G. Ageing and rheological properties of facial skin in women. Gerontology 1998;44:159-61.

7.    Schmidt JB, Binder M, Demschik G, Bieglmayer C, Reiner A. Treatment of skin aging with topical estrogens. Int J Dermatol 1996;35:669-74.

8.    **Sumino H, Ichikawa S, Abe M, Endo Y, Ishikawa O, Kurabayashi M. Effects of aging, menopause, and hormone replacement therapy on forearm skin elasticity in women. J Am Geriatr Soc 2004;52:945-9.

9.    Sumino H, Ichikawa S, Abe M, et al. Effects of aging and postmenopausal hypoestrogenism on skin elasticity and bone mineral density in Japanese women. Endocr J 2004;51:159-64.

10.    Wendling P-A, Dell'Acqua G. Skin biophysical properties of a population living in Valais, Switzerland. Skin Res Technol 2003;9:331-8.


1.    *Aleman A, Verhaar HJ, De Haan EH, et al. Insulin-like growth factor-I and cognitive function in healthy older men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1999;84:471-5.

2.    *Asthana S. Estrogen and cognition: a true relationship? J Am Geriatr Soc 2004;52:316-8.

3.    Beck SG, Handa RJ. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA): a misunderstood adrenal hormone and spine-tingling neurosteroid? Endocrinology 2004;145:1039-41.

4.    Brinton RD. Cellular and molecular mechanisms of estrogen regulation of memory function and neuroprotection against Alzheimer's disease: recent insights and remaining challenges. Learn Mem 2001;8:121-33.

5.    Buckner RL. Memory and executive function in aging and AD: multiple factors that cause decline and reserve factors that compensate. Neuron 2004;44:195-208.

6.    *Budson AE, Price BH. Memory dysfunction. N Engl J Med 2005;352:692-9.

7.    Cherrier MM, Anawalt BD, Herbst KL, et al. Cognitive effects of short-term manipulation of serum sex steroids in healthy young men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2002;87:3090-6.

8.    **Deary IJ, Corley J, Gow AJ, et al. Age-associated cognitive decline. Br Med Bull 2009;92:135-52.

9.    ***Gualtieri CT, Johnson LG. Reliability and validity of a computerized neurocognitive test battery, CNS Vital Signs. Arch Clin Neuropsychol 2006;21:623-43.

10.    Hedden T, Gabrieli JD. Insights into the ageing mind: a view from cognitive neuroscience. Nat Rev Neurosci 2004;5:87-96.

11.    Helmuth L. All in your mind. Sci Aging Knowledge Environ 2003;2003:NS3.

12.    Masley S, Roetzheim R, Gualtieri T. Aerobic exercise enhances cognitive flexibility. J Clin Psychol Med Settings 2009;16:186-93.

13.    **Salthouse TA. When does age-related cognitive decline begin? Neurobiol Aging 2009;30:507-14.

14.    **Salthouse TA. Selective review of cognitive aging. J Int Neuropsychol Soc 2010;16:754-60.


1.    Caruso C, Buffa S, Candore G, et al. Mechanisms of immunosenescence. Immun Ageing 2009;6:10.

2.    **Chidrawar S, Khan N, Wei W, et al. Cytomegalovirus-seropositivity has a profound influence on the magnitude of major lymphoid subsets within healthy individuals. Clin Exp Immunol 2009;155:423-32.

3.    ***Davenport RJ. Immunity challenge. Sci Aging Knowledge Environ 2003;2003:OA1.

Great introduction to immune system aging

4.    Derhovanessian E, Larbi A, Pawelec G. Biomarkers of human immunosenescence: impact of Cytomegalovirus infection. Curr Opin Immunol 2009;21:440-5.

5.    Effros RB. Telomerase induction in T cells: a cure for aging and disease? Exp Gerontol 2007;42:416-20.

6.    *Fagnoni FF, Vescovini R, Passeri G, et al. Shortage of circulating naive CD8(+) T cells provides new insights on immunodeficiency in aging. Blood 2000;95:2860-8.

7.    Gruver AL, Hudson LL, Sempowski GD. Immunosenescence of ageing. J Pathol 2007;211:144-56.

8.    *Hsu HC, Scott DK, Zhang P, et al. CD8 T-cell immune phenotype of successful aging. Mech Ageing Dev 2006;127:231-9.

9.    **Pawelec G, Larbi A, Derhovanessian E. Senescence of the Human Immune System. J Comp Pathol 2009.

10.    **Strindhall J, Nilsson BO, Lofgren S, et al. No Immune Risk Profile among individuals who reach 100 years of age: findings from the Swedish NONA immune longitudinal study. Exp Gerontol 2007;42:753-61.

11.    Weng NP, Akbar AN, Goronzy J. CD28(-) T cells: their role in the age-associated decline of immune function. Trends Immunol 2009;30:306-12.


1.    Aubert G, Hills M, Lansdorp PM. Telomere length measurement-caveats and a critical assessment of the available technologies and tools. Mutat Res 2012;730:59-67.

2.    **Aubert G, Lansdorp PM. Telomeres and aging. Physiol Rev 2008;88:557-79.

3.    Aviv A. Telomeres and human somatic fitness. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2006;61:871-3.

4.    Aviv A, Aviv H. Telomeres and essential hypertension. Am J Hypertens 1999;12:427-32.

5.    Aviv A, Chen W, Gardner JP, et al. Leukocyte telomere dynamics: longitudinal findings among young adults in the Bogalusa Heart Study. Am J Epidemiol 2009;169:323-9.

6.    **Blasco MA. Telomere length, stem cells and aging. Nat Chem Biol 2007;3:640-9.

7.    Brouilette SW, Moore JS, McMahon AD, et al. Telomere length, risk of coronary heart disease, and statin treatment in the West of Scotland Primary Prevention Study: a nested case-control study. Lancet 2007;369:107-14.

8.    Brouilette SW, Whittaker A, Stevens SE, van der Harst P, Goodall AH, Samani NJ. Telomere length is shorter in healthy offspring of subjects with coronary artery disease: support for the telomere hypothesis. Heart 2008;94:422-5.

9.    **Calado R, Young N. Telomeres in disease. F1000 Med Rep 2012;4:8.

10.    Fitzpatrick AL, Kronmal RA, Gardner JP, et al. Leukocyte telomere length and cardiovascular disease in the cardiovascular health study. Am J Epidemiol 2007;165:14-21.

11.    **Harley CB, Liu W, Blasco M, et al. A Natural Product Telomerase Activator As Part of a Health Maintenance Program. Rejuvenation Res 2010.

12.    ***Oeseburg H, de Boer RA, van Gilst WH, van der Harst P. Telomere biology in healthy aging and disease. Pflugers Arch 2010;459:259-68.

13.    van de Berg PJ, Griffiths SJ, Yong SL, et al. Cytomegalovirus infection reduces telomere length of the circulating T cell pool. J Immunol 2010;184:3417-23.

14.    *Willeit P, Willeit J, Brandstatter A, et al. Cellular aging reflected by leukocyte telomere length predicts advanced atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease risk. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2010;30:1649-56.

15.    *Willeit P, Willeit J, Mayr A, et al. Telomere length and risk of incident cancer and cancer mortality. JAMA 2010;304:69-75.


1.    **Butler RN, Sprott R, Warner H, et al. Biomarkers of aging: from primitive organisms to humans. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2004;59:B560-7.

2.    Hochschild R. Can an index of aging be constructed for evaluating treatments to retard aging rates? A 2,462-person study. J Gerontol 1990;45:B187-214.

3.    **Jackson SH, Weale MR, Weale RA. Biological age--what is it and can it be measured? Arch Gerontol Geriatr 2003;36:103-15.

4.    Karasik D, Demissie S, Cupples LA, Kiel DP. Disentangling the genetic determinants of human aging: biological age as an alternative to the use of survival measures. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2005;60:574-87.

5.    Karlamangla AS, Singer BH, Seeman TE. Reduction in allostatic load in older adults is associated with lower all-cause mortality risk: MacArthur studies of successful aging. Psychosom Med 2006;68:500-7.

6.    **Nakamura E, Miyao K. A method for identifying biomarkers of aging and constructing an index of biological age in humans. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2007;62:1096-105.

7.    **Sehl ME, Yates FE. Kinetics of human aging: I. Rates of senescence between ages 30 and 70 years in healthy people. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2001;56:B198-208.

8.    Sprott RL. Biomarkers of aging. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 1999;54:B464-5.

9.    ***Sprott RL. Biomarkers of aging and disease: introduction and definitions. Exp Gerontol 2010;45:2-4.